The most common location of the malformations is the lumbar and sacral areas of the spinal cord. The lumbar nerves control the muscles in the hip, leg, knee and foot, and help to keep the body erect. The sacral nerves control some of the muscles in the feet, bowel and urinary bladder, and the ability to have an erection. Some degree of impairment can be expected in these areas, resulting in varying degrees of paralysis, absence of skin sensation, and poor or absent bowel and/or bladder control as well as curvature of the spine (scoliosis) (depending on the severity and location of the lesion damage on the spine). Although these individuals are rarely mentally retarded, in most cases there are cognitive problems.
The treatment -unfortunately, there's no cure for the nerve damage caused by the spina bifida. But the the bulging sac can be fixed by the surgeon. The sac can be put inside back into the body.
Since the spina bifida is a congenital birth defect , the prevention method must start during early pregnancy. Dietary supplement of folic acid proved to be helpful. So, to future mommies... eat more whole grains, fortified breakfast cereals, dried beans, leaf vegetables and fruits.